The Milestone Prizes, totalling US$6 million, are for demonstrating (via actual testing and analysis) robust hardware and software to overcome key technical risks in the areas of imaging, mobility and lander systems — all three being necessary to achieve a successful Google Lunar XPRIZE mission. Milestone Prizes are available in each of those three categories and the prize value and maximum number of winning teams for each are summarized below.
Landing Milestone: The landing system includes all hardware and software that support a soft-landing of the Google Lunar XPRIZE spacecraft on the Moon. Judges will monitor teams as they test items such as the following:
- Attitude control en route to the Moon
- Systems for tracking and orbit determination en route to the Moon
- Guidance Navigation and Control (GNC) for the lunar descent (including sensors)
- Landing legs or touchdown devices
- Thermal control (e.g. related to GNC or propulsion)
- Onboard autonomy
- Interfaces to other subsystems
Mobility Milestone: Judges will monitor teams as they test items such as the following:
- Primary mobility actuators (e.g. wheels, thrusters, etc.)
- Mechanisms for pointing, driving, throttling the primary mobility actuators
- Mechanisms for deployment from primary craft (if relevant)
- Avionics for surface navigation including sensors for the mobility system (e.g. attitude, speed, position)
- Hardware and software for distance verification, including any on‐ground processing steps
- Lunar surface--‐to--surface telecommunications (if a separate vehicle is used as a telecommunications relay to Earth for mobility--related telemetry and command)
- Interfaces to other subsystems
Camera Milestone: Judges will monitor teams as they test items such as the following:
- Optics (e.g. lenses, mirrors)
- Detectors and associated electronics
- Mechanisms (e.g. pointing, hold down & release, shutter, focus)
- Image processing capability needed to meet GLXP image specifications
- Lunar surface--‐to--‐surface telecommunications (if a separate craft is used as a telecommunications relay of the Mooncast)
- Camera thermal control
- Interfaces to other subsystems
Judges will also attend key review meetings with each of the teams.
The prize money for the Milestone Prizes is brought forward from the Grand or Second Place Prizes. Thus, teams that win Milestone Prizes will have those winnings deducted from their eventual Grand or Second Place Prize. Teams that do not win a Grand or Second Place Prize will keep their Milestone Prize winnings. There is also a possibility that a team not selected to compete for Milestone Prizes could still go on to win Grand of Second Place Prize. Thus there is a probability that the overall prize purse will exceed the US$30 million. To accommodate this possibility, Google has increased its pledge to a new maximum value of US$40 million.
The Milestone Prizes consist of three rounds:
- Definition Round (completed) – Teams prepared and submitted a set of documents called the Milestone Definition Data Package (MDDP) for each subsystem category that they wish to compete in. This package defines the key technical risks they are facing and how they intend to retire them
- Assessment Round (completed) – The Judging Panel assessed the MDDP entries and selected MDDPs that will be monitored in the next round
- Accomplishment Round – Teams reduce key technical risks by carrying out testing and simulations defined in their MDDPs and the Judging Panel monitors their work
The Accomplishment Round is expected to run by the end of the year although teams that complete their development and verification activities may be awarded prizes before the end of Accomplishment Round.
The Milestone Prizes are an optional part of the Google Lunar XPRIZE. Teams that choose not to participate in the Milestone Prizes are still eligible to win the Grand or Second Place Prize.
Milestone Prize Finalists
Astrobotic has been selected to compete for three of the Milestone Prizes: the Landing Prize, the Mobility Prize, and the Imaging Prize. They aim to deliver affordable space robotics technology and missions for a new era of planetary exploration, science, tourism, resource utilization and mining. The company was established in 2008 as a spin-off from the Carnegie Mellon University Robotics Institute. The team’s lander has a mass of more than half a metric ton and is about the size of a small SUV. It will release a rover about the size of a go-cart. The team’s rover will explore a lunar skylight thought to be an entrance to a subsurface cave network.
Hakuto has been selected to compete for one of the Milestone Prizes: the Mobility Prize. Team Hakuto’s mission is to trail-blaze non-governmental space missions, highlight Japanese robotics technology and inspire people through the dream of reaching the Moon. Hakuto’s rover is small, around 20 cm tall and 30 cm wide with a mass of 2 kilograms. It will be able to carry about 100 grams of scientific instrumentation and will use two wheels to move across the lunar surface. The micro-rover design highlights a strength in Japanese engineering – the miniaturization of complex machines.
Moon Express has been selected to compete for three of the Milestone Prizes: the Landing Prize, the Mobility Prize, and the Imaging Prize. Moon Express Inc. is a privately funded company created to develop new commercial space activities and to open up the resources of the Moon for the benefit of humanity. Headquartered in Silicon Valley, Moon Express combines lean start-up principles with expertise in aerospace engineering and planetary sciences. Moon Express plans to send a series of low-cost robotic missions to the Moon, starting with its Google Lunar XPRIZE mission. The MX-1 will launch in 2015 and land in the Moon’s southern hemisphere.
Team Indus has been selected to compete for two of the Milestone Prizes: the Landing Prize, and the Imaging Prize. The team is managed by Axiom Research Labs Private Limited, an aerospace startup company, and is headquartered in India’s IT industry hub, Bangalore. Through its lunar mission, Team Indus aims to showcase the creativity and capability of Indian entrepreneurs, promote higher scientific education, develop new home-grown space technologies and inspire an entire generation of young people.
Part Time Scientists
Part Time Scientists has been selected to compete for two of the Milestone Prizes: the Mobility Prize, and the Imaging Prize. The Part-Time Scientists team consists of dozens of scientists, engineers and entrepreneurs from countries around the world. The team’s goal is to create a foundation for the future of private space exploration. Their lander, Isaac, will weigh approximately 250kg with up to 50kg of payload space (of which 25kg will be the Asimov rover). Asimov has a four-wheeled design that uses a vector control system, which means it can move easily in any direction with no ‘front’ or ‘back’ to the rover.